Private school kids continue to dominate corporate law

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‘Much more work to be done’, says SRA chief

Eton College (credit: Herry Lawford via Wikimedia Commons) and London

Corporate law firms continue to be dominated by privately-educated lawyers, new research reveals.

The statistics, recently released by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA), show firms which mainly do corporate law have the lowest proportion of state-educated solicitors, 46%. By contrast, nearly four fifths (79%) of solicitors in firms doing mainly criminal work are from state school backgrounds.

The findings come from its biennial collection of diversity data, completed last summer. With a 96% response rate, this represented 186,000 people working at 9,500 law firms across England and Wales.

The percentage of state-schooled solicitors is considerably lower than the percentage of state-schooled people generally. Twenty-one percent of all lawyers attended fee-paying schools, the SRA data says, compared with 7% of the general population. This 21% figure is three times the national UK average, and rises to 32% in the larger law firms with 50+ partners.

The social mobility problem isn’t exclusive to the solicitor profession. Earlier this year we reported on statistics produced by the bar regulator showing that 34% of barristers attended a UK independent school.

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Elsewhere, the SRA stats show diversity data on the percentage of female and ethnic minority solicitors.

Nearly half of all solicitors are female (49%) but this varies significantly with seniority. One in three (34%) of partners are female, compared to women accounting for more than half (59%) of solicitors working at non-partner level.

The proportion of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) lawyers working in law firms is 21%, as per below.

The latest figures also show a potential under reporting of disabilities within the profession. Just 3% of respondents described themselves as disabled, compared to 13% of the employed population.

For the second time the SRA has collected data on transgenderism in the legal profession: 2% of solicitors, 1% of partners and 2% of other staff have a different gender identity to what was assigned to them at birth. This hasn’t budged since the previous findings.

Another key takeaway found by the regulator is almost half (49%) of lawyers are Christian, while 30% have no religion or belief.

Paul Philip, SRA chief executive, said:

“A diverse and inclusive legal profession which reflects the wider community is not only good for the public but for legal businesses themselves. That is why it is encouraging to see progress continuing across many areas, although there is clearly much more work to be done.”

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State Schooled

The children of successful parents go on to lead successful lives… what a surprise.



Brothers! Sisters!

Jeremy Corbyn’s successor will abolish private schools!

Tax them, VAT and ensure they serve all of the local communities they are located in!

Private schools brought us Brexit! They brought us war! They brought us Tony Blair!

We need people’s schools, so that children can learn to express solidarity with Palestinians! And colonial history will be properly gendered and raced!





This is the only thread where LC should not delete Jez comments. Seriously, what is wrong with you, LC? You are deleting 90% of innocent comments under each article about Eve and do not delete this old spammer.



Sad that LC underplay the lack of disabled representation in the profession.



Me, me, me, me. Make this about me.



Did I say anything about me? No. Did I highlight a fact? Yes. Please come back when you’ve got something relevant to say, or keep your trap shut.



“Underplay” is a judgement not a fact. Maybe your crap logic is the key impediment to your professional advancement.



I’m glad you’re so familiar with my CV. Please do give me more tips oh wise one.


Tim I’m really sorry but you’re never going to get anywhere with an attitude like that. I know everything is very stressful at the moment and there is a lot of uncertainty around, but you need to focus on the positives. I remember when I was young and the whole world was my enemy. I blamed everyone and everything for my failures. But then I matured a little and understood that I was only making things harder for myself by responding negatively to everything.


Fuck off and come back once you’ve faced years of oppression and bigotry.


Tim, maybe people don’t get on with you because you are angry jerk.


Well I come on here to make a sensible comment and get attacked non stop. Wouldn’t you be angry too if you get non stop unwarranted abuse?


Tim, in your case it seems to be warranted. Your 5:25 post is just one of many many examples of what you do. Is that just your keyboard warrior persona, or are you that awful in real life too?


May I ask why you aren’t levelling the same accusation at Anonymous Mar 31 2020 12:20pm? It was that person who caused this thread by making insults rather than substantive points.


Because 12:20pm was pointing out your logic was awful, which was a fair comment going to the arguments as put. You just hurled insults and profanity like a petulant child throwing his toys out of the pram. That is where you tend to go on the threads very quickly when someone does not agree with you.


Sigh. This again. Please do me a favour. If your loved ones ask you what you’ve done today, please tell them you cyber bullied someone over disability. If you can’t bring yourself to do that, please come back and apologise. I look forward to hearing from you.


“This again”. Because it is what you almost always do. And when you are called out on it, quite rightly, you cry “bullying”. How pathetic. So given your two options, I have chosen to apologise. I am truly sorry that you are an immature child who behaves in this way.


Glad we agree on something, that you love being a bully. Apology accepted. Please strongly consider some form of community work as recompense.


My community work is calling out twats like you. It is a public service.


Here we go again. I ask you look at your own inadequacies before taking out your anger for your multiple failures in life on others. I sincerely pity you, you haven’t yet reached the stage to be able to identify that you need help, but I would ask that you urgently seek the help you desperately need. I know it’s hard, but talking to someone can help people with your issues like yours. In times like this mental health can be easily overlooked but you must focus on it when the issue is so severe. Good luck.

au contraire

The over-schooled children of the least imaginative parents go on to have unimaginative and process-driven careers… what a surprise.



66 private school kids triggered by this comment


Reality Bites

Intelligence is heavily influenced by genetics. Modern science is showing that influence is more and more by the year. The link between intelligence and earnings is massive. So one would expect the wealthy to have more intelligent kids on average than the poor. Accordingly the fact that the privately educated do well in jobs demanding of high intelligence is consistent with employers picking the best available candidates.


Go finish your zoom lectures

“reality bites- intelligence is heavily influenced by genetics.” According to who 1800’s classical evolutionists? Stop spreading nonsense it is clear you are not a STEM grad. Go and collate a representative sample of regarded scientific papers in modern science that strongly indicate a direct connect between genetics and intelligence- You wont. Because they dont exist. Sick and tired of LLB first years spreading their opinions as fact-.

Furthermore, if you really think being intelligent directly correlates with your chances of being wealthy, you are naive. Katie Hopkins, Piers Morgan, Kylie Jenner, Jair Bolsanaro, George Bush- all individuals earning above the average wages in their countries, according to your watertight theory they should also be highly intelligent??

You could have the highest IQ in the world- but this means nothing if you have no opportunities, no connections, unstable upbringing, poor mental health, no education etc. You could also have the highest IQ in the world but then choose to be a bin man, intelligence doesnt equal ambition. Intelligence doesnt equal wealth. There is no direct cause and effect relationship.



Start here buster. I’ll keep it easy. But there are LOTS of papers cited there.

“Twin studies of adult individuals have found a heritability of IQ between 57% and 73% with the most recent studies showing heritability for IQ as high as 80% and 86%”

I could dump a lot more on you, you ignorant little shrill, but you seem to dimwitted to understand what would be in them.

As for the rest of your vomit, god forbid you ever got near a decent law school with atrocious argumentation like this.

1 The paragraph starting “furthermore” is an attempt to cite individual examples to counter a point based on statistical averages. Even if your examples carried weight, it would be a clear example of the fallacy of composition. You can look that up too and learn something. To make it easy, take an example beloved of Brexiteers – when one points out 70% of people with no school qualifications voted leave and 70% of those with degrees voted remain, with the simple extensions of data showing the links between average IQ and voting in the referendum, some Brexit type always screams “I went to [insert uni but let’s say Durham] and I voted leave”. Your point about Kylie Jenner is that crap.

2 Your last paragraph is nonsense too when put as vaguely as you put it. There are clear links between IQ and certain jobs. The average private equity deal crusher is going to have a higher IQ than the average bin man. I’ll accept that social advantages may be reflect some of the disparity in the state/private numbers, but the social justice warriors think the ENTIRE difference can be explained by that sort of point. That is nonsense as the heritability of IQ plays a large part.

Now be a good chap, if you are a chap, and get back to your GCSE revision.



And you link to Wikipedia to support your lame argument? Grow up. FYI simply because two variables are linked does not mean the relationship is causal. That’s one of the basics of correlation theory in statistics. But I guess you were crap at Maths at school too.



No, dufus, did you see the extent of citations at the bottom? As I said, I kept it simple since you are.

You fucked up

Heritability is not the same as “genetics”.



Logic is shockingly lacking here – how has this post got so many upvotes.

Correlation or causality between IQ and wealth would not require every person with a high IQ to be wealthy, nor for every person with wealth to have a high IQ. Perhaps this misconception is the reason people get so riled up. Just because someone may have been state-school educated does not mean that they had unintelligent parents and are unintelligent themselves – that is most certainly not what this argument is saying.

The specific point is only that a high IQ makes becoming wealthy more likely – would anybody seriously argue with that?

Separetely, the heritability of intelligence (and it’s genetic basis) is fairly well documented, largely through twin studies.



looooool at all the private schoolers getting upset at this comment.

Look relax Tarquin and Tilly its fine, no one is saying you didnt earn you place at Travers Smith- of course you got there purely based off of your intelligence. Completely no other factor played a role…



Your argument negates the fact that “intelligence” and how well a child performs academically may also be due to the resources, which their wealthier parents can afford.

Let’s see if you take a person out of private school, and then make them work part-time whilst juggling their university degree if they are able to achieve the same grades. Certain people are able to excel academically because they have the luxury of resources, and extra time to commit to their studies (instead of working part-time). Having extra resources + time does not necessarily make them more intelligent – it just makes them privileged.



Your point is addressed in the post at 2:36 – the point made does not “negate” anything. Rather the genetic element of IQ can explain a part, possibly a significant part, of the higher rates of employment of the private educated in parts of the profession. I do not deny that social capital and other advantages explain some of the figures. It is just the social justices moaners think the entire difference is because of something unfair in the system, when there are other objective factors at play too. The problem is nothing like as bad as some would make it out to be.


This comments page makes me seriously question our profession

Please, do you know how naive you sound?

Intelligence is derived from a myriad of factors we are only beginning to understand. Genetics and the environment (everything outside of genetics – from the climate of the mother’s womb to the food you were fed in your first months of life) are responsible.

Being genetically “smart” can be completely negated by a terrible environment – having an unstable home, abusive or neglectful parents, etc. Whereas having poor “genetic intelligence” can be compensated for with a loving and nurturing environment and intensive schooling and tutoring not available to the vast majority of the population.

What law firms are beginning to realise is that people who have had “barriers” in their life but have overcame them to achieve qualifications equal to or similar to a wealthy, privately educated person can (although not always will) turn out to be a better lawyer due to traits such as perseverance.

Also are you really telling me that you, someone who I presume considers themself to be “genetically smart”, is privately educated and is studying a law (or equivalent) degree, believe that the best way to support your hypothesis is to cite Wikipedia? Smacks of desperation and although you argue that there are footnotes have you seriously validated each source to ensure the derived logic is sound? I doubt it.

Please abandon your outdated, eugenics beliefs before attempting to enter the legal recruiting market – maybe Slaughters may hire you but that’s about it.


Privately educated Durham alumnus, Trainee Solicitor at MC

And rightly so, if our parents pay then we should get something out of it, i.e. a fruitful career



Classic Durham.



Durham alumnus? Was it Oxford or Cambridge you got rejected from then?



Bless them, they are good when you need a soulless hours drone.



Why are you asking? As if you graduated from Cambridge or Oxford.


Durham Finalist

It is incredibly satisfying when state educated students at these universities end up in the same position, or often surpass, their insufferable privately educated peers. What a waste of money.



Those who went to a private school and Durham aren’t usually very bright, obviously you’ll out perform them academically if you got into Durham from St Stabbington’s Academy for the Pathologically Unruly.

They are, however, “clubbable”. So when you’re sweating your balls off trying to negotiate superb SPAs and do BD every night, they’ll make a call to some bloke they met on their cousin’s stag do and five million quid of private equity work will drop into their lap. They then get made up, whilst you’re a career associate getting the train in from Essex every day so you can afford the school fees necessary to save your children from the same fate.

The way of the world my friend.


Voice of Reason

And you need to consider that statistics are diluted by people from Asian (Singapore, HK, Japan etc.) and Eastern European (Russia, Poland etc.) countries, in which the ultra competitive and hard to get in state grammar schools are usually much more elite than their newly founded private schools. Kids from these schools boost those corporate firms state schools statistics as well.


Smith Simon

We hear this so much, so why hasn’t there been more substantial improvements on this? Should organisations like Rare and AS be doing more?


Trainee (yes I'm an ethnic minority too)

No. Because Rare and AS don’t just look at class/ state-schooling, but they also look at ethnic minority tokenism status. If you’re an ethnic minority from the most expensive schools in the country, then they will still accept you.

This is despite all of the evidence saying that the biggest determinator of success or income in the UK is class, not race.



46%? And many of those will be from some pikey regional day school.

The decline in standards at City firms is dreadful.


In other news

Water is wet, bears sht in the woods and the pope is catholic



I thought the pope shts in the woods and bears are wet?


Expensively Educated

The bears get wet watching popes shtting in the woods. Dirty, dirty bears.



So the proportion of BAME lawyers is higher than the BAME proportion in the country. Interesting. A win for diversity.



Well if you see the significantly high % of ethnic-minority Law students who seem to be dominating the list of academic awards at Oxbridge/UCL/LSE, I would say it’s more like you get what you work for.



Or it could be that the current obsession with diversity has over-achieved.



But the figures for BAME are skewed by the results of the AMEs. The black community is ill served in its attempts to overcome discrimination by the use of the BAME benchmarking.


Working class privately educated (bursary andscholarship) MC trainee

I recommend that everyone should read The Class Ceiling: Why It Pays to be Privileged by Sam Friedman of the LSE.

The greatest myth that successful middle-class people tell themselves is that they “earnt” their position in life, and anyone in society can make it, if only they were just as hard-working or naturally gifted, or entrepreneurial.

Entire swathes of society are completely naive (or intentionally blind) to all of the incremental benefits they have. Internships from Dad’s mates. Volunteering opportunities abroad. A safe home. Supportive teachers. Small class sizes. Music and language lessons. Go on Linkedin and have a look at the amount of Future Trainees with Magic Circle or Chambers work experience when they were 16. Who also happen to attend schools where fees are more than the annual median salary of your average UK worker (£28k).

Some people are born to encouraging parents and that will never change. But idiotic comments here talking about genetics and innate intelligence are talking out of their arse. It’s also concerning the amount of people who are simply accepting of the status quo. Or those with you “haha – I had rich parents and I’ve made it and I don’t care” mentality. Society is unfair and we can learn from other countries that do more to level up opportunity.



The science on inherited IQ is all set out at the citations of the link provided above. The truth may be inconvenient for you, but it is what it is.


Working class privately educated (bursary andscholarship) MC trainee

Sam Friedman explicitly talks about dismisses IQ. In fact. no researcher or sociologist worth their salt really talks about IQ. Far better to talk about places of education, level of training, level of education, job experience and educational attainment. You know, real world experience that in the real world actually correlates with economic and financial success. The last time I checked, law firms ask for your grades, rather than your IQ. So in a post talking about entry into corporate law firms, no one gives a flying f*** about IQ.

In fact, the only time I hear IQ being discussed are on dodgey sounding messageboard and forums. People obsessed with IQ and genetrics tend to be Donald Trumpian right-wingers that don’t understand that real experience and emotional intelligence means a lot more in this world. I believe Stephen Hawkings said, “People who boast about their I.Q. are losers.”

Sorry that I ignored the link you provided above (which was your link to a Wikipedia post…)



The link cited the following papers, which you ignore, straw man.

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Working class privately educated (bursary andscholarship) MC trainee

Really impressed you copy and pasted the entire bibliography of a Wikipedia page, including studies on:

– IQ and genetic disorders
– IQ and a mother’s diet during pregnancy
– IQ between cousins and relatives.

So instead of forming a persuasive argument or selecting evidence which is in any way relevant to any discussion here, you’ve literally regurgitated 75 sources that vaguely talk about genetics and IQ.

I literally took a five second glance at your Wikipedia article and one thing that stood out to me was this:

“A study (1999) by Capron and Duyme of French children adopted between the ages of four and six examined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). The children’s IQs initially averaged 77, putting them near retardation. Most were abused or neglected as infants, then shunted from one foster home or institution to the next. Nine years later after adoption, when they were on average 14 years old, they retook the IQ tests, and all of them did better. The amount they improved was directly related to the adopting family’s socioeconomic status. “Children adopted by farmers and laborers had average IQ scores of 85.5; those placed with middle-class families had average scores of 92. The average IQ scores of youngsters placed in well-to-do homes climbed more than 20 points, to 98.”

So this is literally saying that one of the best predictors of IQ is one’s environment ie. if you are adopted and raised by a middle-class family… the very type that send their kids to private school, you end up with a higher IQ.

So not only have you regurgitated 75 sources without understanding any of it, you’ve regurgitated studies supporting what everyone else here is saying. Oh dear.

Come back when law firms or any employer starts asking candidates their IQ. They don’t. They ask for your grades and work experience. The very thing that you’re likely to achieve well in if you go to a private school and come from a middle-class family…


As if you’ve read any of them


Pls read Atlas Shrugged


Working class privately educated (bursary andscholarship) MC trainee

Yes – if we try to level out equality of opportunity a bit more and acknowledge that some sections of society are cut out from social mobility altogether, society will LITERALLY GRIND TO A HALT AS EVERY HARDWORKING AND TALENTED PERSON WILL DOWN TOOLS.

You stupid stupid imbecile. We’re literally in a global pandemic where every government around the world is on a wartime footing and pumping record levels of investment to support healthcare and businesses from going under. And you’re spouting libertarian nonsense. “Governments are evil! We don’t need governments or any progressive policies!” lol.


Libeturd Leftie

And further to your previous post, those French children demonstrated that when placed in “better socioeconomic environments” their IQs “rose” to a point of being average on the IQ scale, firmly in the middle of the IQ spectrum.

Anonymous’ suppositions and speculation would have been assisted if the results demonstrated a statistically significant rise, in which they were catapulted to the top 10 – 20%; it does not.

This is junk science that has consistently been debunked each successive decade. That there is some scientific literature suggesting or stating that there is a correlation, that does not mean that it is a consensus or even belief by many/a majority of that/any scientific community.

I believe the classic case of R v Brown (The Spanner case) was decided wrongly, however the Law Lords, disagree, and it has been upheld in later cases.

The same can be said for these articles, it there some data/articles claiming to see a correlation yes, is it the academic consensus, nope.

Some of you will argue “you just dont want to see the truth”, without addressing/grappling with this argument… straw man argument



“This is junk science that has consistently been debunked each successive decade.” To the contrary, the position is the opposite, the polygenetic nature of intelligence made the science impossible until recent years, and in the last decade the march of evidence to support the hereditary foundations of intelligence have become not only demonstrable but demonstrable to extents never previous considered.


I think both your argument are dog-shite, but I thought I’d just slip in here to say that “R v Brown was wrongly decided so your papers must be wrong” must be the worst abuse of logical reasoning in human history.


Pls read Atlas Shrugged



Hello LegalCheek Mods

I just watched as a perfectly reasonable comment went from 0 dislikes to 20+ dislikes, whilst the guy talking about genetics when from 0 likes to 10+ likes in about 2 minutes.

You’re probably already aware that the forum can be abused by people using Bots or IP spoofers when they feel they’ve lost an argument.

It’s probably the guy talking about genetics. He fits the profile that type of person.



Genetics Guy

I didn’t play with the votes. Mainly because I don’t care what people think, I’m right anyway.



“It’s also concerning the amount of people who are simply accepting of the status quo”

Like many on this site I expect, the status quo worked incredibly well for my parents, worked incredibly well for me and will in all likelihood work incredibly well for my children. Why on earth wouldn’t I accept it?


Bored Of This

Ah yes, the privately-educated constantly harping on about ‘genetics’ and ‘IQ’ to feel special.

I make a living privately tutoring kids to within an inch of their lives to pass 11+, GCSE and A Level exams. The money in London and endless work was so easy, I left law.

In teaching about 300 kids over 7 years, I can say with authority that most kids in private schools are intellectually average and have had endless tutoring to pass every exam they’ll ever take. And I say that as someone privately educated.

Their parents cater to their every whim, treat them as little gods and either break them or make them with the pressure they put them under. The really wily ones know how to get extra time for exams, find past examiners for tutors and even send tutors in when their teenager is in an eating disorder unit.

I’ve taught the kids of QCs who could barely write a coherent sentence and the kids of Yemeni refugees who became trilingual whilst picking up GCSE English from scratch in 4 months.

Intelligence isn’t genetic. I’m not surprised lawyers recruit from their own as of course, most of them send their kids to private schools.

Spend any time with kids trying to get them off iPad games to read a book whilst their mother works until 10pm and then come back to me with a cast-iron belief that intelligence is ‘genetic’.



I’m particularly intrigued by the guy who says that success comes from IQ and “superior genetics.”

Nah it’s nothing to do with money, schooling, being surrounded by books, tutors and encouraging parents, not having to worry about finances, not coming from a wartorn country, living a healthy life, being able to take unpaid internships, having connections, being surrounded by positive role models, being given good career advice, going to a school where you’re able to take the subjects you’re interest in, living in a non-deprived area, living in a local authority where there is adequate funding for schools, a good diet, regular exercise, having fulfilling extra-curricular activities, having enriching opportunities of travelling, having two parents, having responsible peers you can look up to.

Nah. Genetics.


Expensively Educated

No one is saying those things do not matter. You are going the straw man route. What the comments say is that part of the disparity could be explained by objective criteria and that it would be wrong to label the entire gap as being down to discriminatory factors or class based tailwinds.



Anyone who uses unquantified anecdotal evidence, or is resting upon a tiny sample and then picks 2 extreme data points, in order to argue that genetics doesn’t play a significant role in success shouldn’t be tutoring anybody. It’s a terrible quality argument and you know it.


Bored of This

No worries.

Your anxiety means you’ll be hiring me soon enough to ensure your own kids pass the entrance exams.

There is A LOT of competition these days from similarly tutored ‘genetically superior’ kids from Hong Kong, UAE, India, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Singapore, China, Turkey, Nigeria and Kazakhstan for a limited amount of UK independent school places.

That’s a lot of ‘genetically superior’ kids. I recommend gentle tuition from Year 1 once a week and moving on from there.

Got to be able to keep up with the pace you see, ‘genetically superior’ or not.



Always “more work to be done” isn’t there. Almost as if the diversity dragon has an infinite appetite.



A lot of Harrow-educated tossers in the comments shaking with indignation at the thought that their dad being golfing buddies with a partner at their firm had something to do with their current ‘success’.


Expensively Educated

I think my first from Oxford had more to do with it. My father was awful at golf. Still, nice cliché.



Polo buddies, then. I wasn’t being literal but clearly private schools don’t teach you how to have a sense of humour or a modicum of self-awareness.



Is that is what is wrong with humourless privately taught (I won’t say educated) Jeremy Corbyn?



Maybe? All I know is that I’m enjoying seeing the hordes of insecure Tarquins and Gideons voting my comments down. No doubt their Habsburg jaws are quivering whilst tears stream down their face.


How dull. We are quite secure, Madison or Ethan or whatever the oiks are calling their kids these days, indeed that tremendous sense of self-confidence is one of the advantages a better public school gives its students.


LOL the comments above certainly beg to differ, Tarq. Posting pseudo-scientific crap to prove you’re genetically superior isn’t the behaviour of a secure individual last time I checked.

Harsh but fair

Charles and Isabella from a private school will likely be very well educated, intelligent, polished and self-confident. Ryan and Hannah from a state school will likely be poorly educated, thick, gauche and chippy.

Let’s give the job to Ryan and Hannah!


How about private enterprises employ whoever they want without regard to social engineering that is not their concern? If their practice would perform better by employing more graduates of state schools they are free to do so. Such employment is not some public good that any individual has a right to. There are no formal or legal barriers to entry to the legal professions. That is the end of the state’s interest in the question.



Social justice warriors do not like functioning markets, they are leftists.


Lord Harley

My state school education never held me back. But then I do also have a doctorate from the ancient library of Alexandria and invented language.



I don’t even know what this article is about and the comments section is a minefield but my trainees are still hot and that’s all that matters.



LC must love this low hanging fruit – post something about my Oxbridge or private schools in the legal profession and watch the click and comment stats explode.

To those who went to an independent school, be incredibly grateful for the leg up and work your ass off to make lots of money and contribute to the tax base. Those who didn’t? Also work your ass off and, statistically, earn less for it but still take pride that you’re not scrounging.

In fact now is the time we all need to work our collective asses off – everyone needs to try being a rainmaker and squeeze blood from a stone as in a couple months it will be the hiring freezes of 2008 all over again.


Corbyn. Sympathiser.

This, but unironically.


Corbyn. Sympathiser

I go away for 18 months and this site becomes a hive of IQ fetishism and wealth worship. SMDH.


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